Readings on the Less Commonly Taught Philosophies (LCTP)

Below is my list of suggested further readings on Africana, Chinese, Christian, Continental, Indian, Indigenous, Islamic, Jewish, and Latin American philosophy. In general, I have focused on books rather than articles. Works in boldface are particularly useful for either classroom use or as introductions for philosophers trained in mainstream Anglo-European philosophy.  I consider myself knowledgeable about Chinese and Anglo-European philosophy, so while the selections in these areas will inevitably reflect my own biases, I am confident that they are at least defensible.  However, I do not have significant expertise in any of the other areas, so I have had to rely upon bibliographies and references in other works. Consequently, some suggestions may be of uneven reliability.  Please blame me for this, and not the areas of philosophy themselves.

General

Africana Philosophy

"Africana Philosophy" is a sometimes helpful label that includes indigenous African philosophies, philosophical discussions surrounding he current situation of African peoples, and the philosophy of the African diaspora, especially African-American philosophy. 

Where Should I Start?

·      African Philosophy

  • Appiah, Kwame Anthony.  In My Father’s House:  Africa in the Philosophy of Culture.  New York:  Oxford Univesity Press, 1993.
  • Bell, Richard H. Understanding African Philosophy.
  • Brown, Lee.  African Philosophy:  New and Traditional Readings.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • Coetzee, P.H. and A.P.J. Roux, eds. The African Philosophy Reader.  2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 2003. Click here to order this book.
  • Danquah, J.B.  The Akan Fragment of God:  A Fragment of Gold Coast Ethics.  London:  Lutterworth Press, 1944.
  • Eze, Emmanuel C., ed.  Postcolonial African Philosophy:  A Reader.  Malden, MA:  Wiley-Blackwell, 1997.
  • Eze, Emmanuel C., ed. African Philosophy: An Anthology. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 1998.
  • Fanon, Frantz. Black Skin, White Masks.  Translated by R. Philcox. New York: Grove Press, 1952.
  • Fanon, Frantz. The Wretched of the Earth.  1961. Translated by R. Philcox. Paris: Presence Africaine, 1963. A seminal work.
  • Griaule, Marcel. Conversations With Ogotemmeli: An Introduction to Dogon Religious Ideas.  International African Institute, 1975.
  • Guerrero, Alex. "African Philosophy," lecture at Rutgers University, 2017. URL = https://drive.google.com/file/d/0ByRaTn6g9yNDVy04TzVQd2ZYNVE/view. Excellent brief overview that I consulted in constructing this bibliography.
  • Gyekye, Kwame. "African Ethics." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2011 Edition). Ed. Edward N. Zalta. URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2011/entries/african-ethics/.
  • Gyekye, Kwame. An Essay on African Philosophical Thought: The Akan Conceptual Scheme.  Reprint, Philadelphia:  Temple University Press, 1996.
  • Hallen, Barry. The Good, the Bad, and the Beautiful: Discourse about Values in Yoruba Culture. Indiana University Press, 2000.
  • Hallen, Barry.  A Short History of African Philosophy. 2nd ed. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2009.
  • Hallen, Barry. The Southern CrossURL=http://www.barryhallen.com/. Accessed 20 October 2017. Website with an exhaustive bibliography of works on African philosophy, as well as links to other web resources.
  • Hallen, Barry and J. Sodipo. Foreword by W. V. O. Quine. Knowledge, Belief, and Witchcraft: Analytic Experiments in African Philosophy.  Stanford University Press, 1986.
  • Henry, Paget. Caliban’s Reason: Introducing Afro-Caribbean Philosophy.  New York: Routledge, 2000.
  • Imbo, Samuel Oluoch. An Introduction to African Philosophy. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
  • Karp, Ivan, and D.A. Masolo.  African Philosophy as Cultural Inquiry.  Bloomington:  Indiana University Press, 2009.
  • Kiros, Teodos. Zora Yacob: A Seventeenth-Century Rationalist. Red Sea Press, 2005.
  • Masolo, Dismas A. African Philosophy in Search of Identity.  Indiana University Press, 1994.  An overview of African philosophy in the second half of the 20th century.
  • Masolo, Dismas A. "African Sage Philosophy." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2016 Edition). Ed. Edward N. Zaltaed. URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2016/entries/african-sage/.
  • Mosley, A. G., ed.  African Philosophy: Selected Readings, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995.
  • Nkrumah, Kwame.  Consciencism:  Philosophy and Ideology for De-Colonization and Development with Particular Reference to the African Revolution.  New York:  Monthly Review Press, 1964. 
  • Oruka, Henry Odera. Sage Philosophy: Indigenous Thinkers and the Modern Debate on African Philosophy. Brill Academic Publishing, 1990.
  • Serequeberhan, T.  African Philosophy: The Essential Readings, New York: Paragon House, 1991.
  • Tempels, Placide.  Bantu Philosophy. 1945. Reprint, HBC Publishing, 2001. 
  • Wingo, Ajume. "Akan Philosophy of the Person." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2017 Edition). Ed. Edward N. Zalta URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2017/entries/akan-person/.
  • Wiredu, Kwasi, ed. A Companion to African Philosophy.  Malden, MA:  Blackwell 2004.  
  • Wiredu, Kwasi.  Philosophy and an African Culture.  New York:  Cambridge University Press, 1980. A fascinating collection of essays on a variety of topics.

·      African-American Philosophy

  • Bernasconi, Robert and Tommy L. Lott, eds.  The Idea of Race.  Indianapolis:  Hackett Publishing, 2000.  An excellent anthology of essays from the 18th century to the present.
  • Boxill, Bernard. Blacks and Social Justice, Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield, 1984.
  • Brotz, H, ed. African-American Social and Political Thought 1850–1920. 2nd ed. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1992. Collection of classic essays grouped under the themes "Emigration," "Assimilation," "Cultural Nationalism," "Revival of Political Nationalism."
  • Collins, Patricia Hill.  Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1990.
  • Davidson, Maria Del Guadalupe, Kathryn T. Gines and Donna-Dale L. Marcano, eds. Convergences: Black Feminism and Continental Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2010.
  • Dotson, Kristie, “How Is This Paper Philosophy?” Comparative Philosophy Volume 3, No. 1 (2012): 3-29.
  • Gooding-Williams, Robert. In the Shadow of Du Bois: Afro-Modern Political Thought in America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009.
  • Gordon, Lewis R., ed. Existence in Black: An Anthology of Black Existential Philosophy. New York: Routledge, 1997.
  • Gordon, Lewis R.  Existenta Africana: Understanding Africana Existential Thought.  Routledge, 2000.
  • Gordon, Lewis R. An Introduction to Africana Philosophy.  Cambridge University Press, 2008.  One of the few secondary works that presents a general overview of the topic.
  • Guy-Sheftall, B., ed. Words of Fire: An Anthology of African-American Feminist Thought, New York: The New Press, 1995.
  • Harris, Leonard, ed. Philosophy Born of Struggle: Anthology of Afro-American Philosophy from 1917. 2nd ed. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 2000.
  • Hord, Fred Lee and Jonathan Scott Lee, eds. I Am Because We Are: Readings in Black Philosophy. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
  • King, Jr., Martin Luther. A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings of Martin Luther King, Jr.  Edited by J.M. Washington. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1986.
  • Locke, Alain.  The Philosophy of Alain Locke: Harlem Renaissance and Beyond.  Edited by Leonard Harris.  Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1989.
  • Lott, Tommy L., ed.  African-American Philosophy: Selected Readings. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002.
  • Lott, Tommy L. and John P. Pittman, eds. A Companion to African-American Philosophy.  Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2003.
  • Maffly-Kipp, L. F. and Lofton, K., eds. Women’s Work: An Anthology of African-American Women’s Historical Writings From Antebellum America to the Harlem Renaissance. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.
  • Mills, Charles W.  Blackness Visible: Essays on Philosophy and Race. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998.
  • Mills, Charles W.  The Racial Contract. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999. Seminal critique of the racism underlying Western political philosophy.
  • Montmarquet, J. A. and W. H. Hardy, eds. Reflections: An Anthology of African American Philosophy. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2000. An excellent anthology of classic and contemporary readings on a variety of topics. Suitable for both undergraduates and scholars.
  • Outlaw, Jr., Lucius T. On Race and Philosophy.  New York:  Routledge 1996. 
  • Pittman, John P., ed. African-American Perspectives and Philosophical Traditions. New York: Routledge, 1996.  Good collection of essays in what might be called "analytic" African-American philosophy. Sections include "Philosophical Traditions," "The African-American Tradition," "Racism, Identity, and Social Life." Suitable for both undergraduates and advanced scholars.
  • Yancy, G., ed. African-American Philosophers: 17 Conversations, New York: Routledge, 1998. 

Chinese Philosophy

Chinese philosophy is a diverse set of schools and traditions stretching back almost three millennia.  However, some of the works most interesting to contemporary Western philosophers were written in the classical period China (pre-Qin dynasty, especially the Warring States Period of 403-221 BCE), the period of Buddhist dominance, and the Neo-Confucian reaction against Buddhism. An opinionated list of "Doctoral Programs in Chinese Philosophy outside China" may be found at https://drive.google.com/open?id=11Oe_KvA-UVnhqIPu_EAOfvMI24VDVmjx (last updated 1 September 2017).

Where Should I Start?

Classic (551-221 BCE) Chinese Philosophy

This is the era of the classic Confucian virtue ethicists Kongzi (Confucius), Mengzi (Mencius), and Xunzi, the anti-rationalist Daoist (Taoist) philosophers Laozi and Zhuangzi, and other major thinkers including the consequentialist Mozi, the Legalist movement (Shenzi and Hanfeizi), and the philosophers of language in the "School of Names" (see Graham's Disputers of the Tao).

  • The Classic of Changes: A New Translation of the “I Ching” as Interpreted by Wang Bi.  Translated by Richard John Lynn.  New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.
  • Confucius. Confucius: Analects: With Selections from Traditional Commentaries.  Translated by Edward Slingerland. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2003. This is the best translation of this seminal Confucian classic. Suitable for both undergraduates and scholars.
  • Csikszentmihalyi, Mark and Philip J. Ivanhoe, eds., Religious and Philosophical Aspects of the "Laozi."  Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999.  This anthology is a good way for non-specialists to learn some of the major issues surrounding this important Daoist text
  • Graham, Angus C. Disputers of the Tao. La Salle, Illinois: Open Court, 1989.  A good general history of ancient Chinese philosophy.  Especially strong on the Mohists and the School of Names.
  • Harris, Eirik L., trans. The Shenzi Fragments.  New York:  Columbia University Press, 2016.  The long introduction to this work provides a helpful overview of Chinese political philosophy. Most suitable for scholars.
  • Ivanhoe, Philip J. and Bryan W. Van Norden, eds. Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2005. Anthology of readings with introductory comments and suggestions for further reading.
  • Jones, David, ed. Confucius Now: Contemporary Encounters with the "Analects."  Chicago: Open Court, 2008. This anthology is a good way for non-specialists to learn some of the major issues surrounding this important Confucian philosopher.
  • Kjellberg, Paul and Philip J. Ivanhoe, eds. Essays on Skepticism, Relativism, and Ethics in the “Zhuangzi.”  Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1996.  This anthology is a good source for non-specialists to learn about the major issues raised by this seminal Daoist philosopher.
  • Kline, Thornton and Philip J. Ivanhoe, eds. Virtue, Nature, and Moral Agency in the Xunzi.  Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2000.  This anthology is a good way for non-specialists to learn some of the major issues surrounding this important Confucian philosopher.
  • Laozi and Wang Bi.  The Classic of the Way and Virtue: A New Translation of the “Tao-te Ching” of Laozi as Interpreted by Wang Bi.  Translated by Richard John Lynn. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004. See especially the translation of Wang Bi's "Outline Introduction to the Laozi," which is a brief overview of one of the most influential lines of interpretation of this text.
  • Liu, Xiusheng and Philip J. Ivanhoe, eds. Essays on the Moral Philosophy of Mengzi. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2002. This anthology is a good way for non-specialists to learn some of the major issues surrounding this important Confucian philosopher.
  • Mengzi. The Essential Mengzi. Translated by Bryan W. Van Norden. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2007.  This translation of selected passages from the figure who is perhaps the most influential Confucian philosopher of all time includes selections from traditional commentaries. Suitable for both undergraduates and advanced scholars.
  • Mozi, The Book of Master Mo.  Translated by Ian Johnston. New York: Penguin Books, 2014. A complete translation of the surviving writers of this multifaceted consequentialist critic of Confucianism and his later followers.
  •  Olberding, Amy, ed. Dao Companion to the “Analects.”  Springer, 2013.
  • Raphals, Lisa A. Sharing the Light: Representations of Women and Virtue in Early China.  Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1998.
  • Schwartz, Benjamin.  The World of Thought in Ancient China.  Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press, 1985. Good history of ancient Chinese philosophy.  Especially good on Confucianism and Daoism.
  • Van Norden, Bryan W.  Introduction to Classical Chinese Philosophy.  Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2011. This introduction is intended as a complement to Ivanhoe and Van Norden, Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy, but can also be read independently.  Suitable for both undergraduates and advanced scholars.
  • Xunzi. Xunzi: The Complete Text.  Translated by Eric Hutton. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014. The most systematic writer among early Confucians, Xunzi defends a sophisticated constructivist account of ethics. 
  • Zhuangzi. Chuang Tzu:  The Inner Chapters.  Translated by A.C. Graham. Rev. ed. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2001.  The introduction to this work is especially good.
  • Zhuangzi.  Wandering on the Way:  Early Taoist Parables and Tales of Chuang Tzu.  Translated by Victor Mair.  Honolulu:  University of Hawaii Press, 1997.
  • Zhuangzi.  Zhuangzi: Basic Writings.  Translated by Burton Watson. Reprint. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003. This is probably the most accessible translation of a philosopher who has been compared to Nietzsche because of his mastery of different genres of writing and his critique of conventional rationality. Suitable for both undergraduates and advanced scholars.
  • Zhuangzi. Zhuangzi: The Essential Writings: With Selections from Traditional Commentaries.  Translated by Brook Ziporyn.  Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2009.  

Han Dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE)

  • Csikszentmihalyi, Mark, trans. Readings in Han Chinese Thought. Hackett Publishing, 2006. Best one-volume anthology.
  • Ing, Michael D. K. "Philosophy in Western Han Dynasty China (206 BCE-9 CE)," Philosophy Compass 11:6 (2016): 289-304. This and McLeod's article (below) are invaluable overviews of the primary and secondary literature.
  • McLeod, Alexus. "Philosophy in Eastern Han Dynasty China (25-220 CE)," Philosophy Compass 10:6 (2015): 355-368.

Chinese Buddhism

  • Cleary, Thomas. Entry into the Inconceivable: An Introduction to Hua-yen Buddhism.  Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1983.
  • Cleary, Thomas, trans. The Flower Ornament Scripture.  Shambhala, 1993.
  • Cook, Francis H. Hua-yen Buddhism: The Jewel Net of Indra.  University Park, Penna.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1977. This is still the most accurate, accessible work on this distinctive Chinese form of Buddhism that is doctrinally very suitable to Zen/Chan Buddhism. Suitable for both undergraduates and scholars.
  • Cook, Francis H., trans., Three Texts on Consciousness Only.  Berkeley, CA: Numata Center, 1999. 
  • Hamar, Imre, ed. Reflecting Mirrors: Perspectives on Huayan Buddhism.  Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz, 2007.
  • King, Sallie B. Buddha Nature.  Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1991.
  • Liu, Ming-wood.  Madhyamaka Thought in China.  Leidin: Brill, 1994. 
  • Lusthaus, Dan. Buddhist Phenomenology. London: Routledge Curzon, 2002.
  • The Lotus Sutra.  Translated by Burton Watson. New York:  Columbia University Press, 1993. 
  • Makeham, John, ed.  Transforming Consciousness:  Yogacara Thought in Modern China.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 2014.
  • Ng, Yu-Kwan. T'ien-T'ai Buddhism and Early Madhyamika.  Honolulu:  University of Hawaii Press, 1993.
  • Odin, Steve.  Process Metaphysics and Hua-Yen Buddhism.  Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1982.
  • The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch.  Translated by Philip B. Yampolsky. New York: Columbia University Press, 1967.
  • Paul, Diana Y.  Philosophy of Mind in Sixth-Century China.  Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1984.
  • Swanson, Paul L. Foundations of T’ien T’ai Philosophy: The Flowering of the Two Truths Theory in Chinese Buddhism.  Berkeley: Asian Humanities Press, 1989. Includes 157 pp. of discussion followed by a 100-page translation of Zhiyi’s Fahua xuanyi. 
  • The Vamalakirti Sutra. Translated by Burton Watson. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997. 
  • Zongmi. Inquiry into the Origin of Humanity.  Translated by Peter Gregory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1995. Excellent translation to a seminal Buddhist text along with a helpful interpretive introduction.

Neo-Confucianism

  • Angle, Steve and Justin Tiwald, Neo-Confucianism: A Philosophical Introduction.  Wiley/Polity, 2017. Excellent topical introduction to Neo-Confucianism.  Suitable for both undergraduates and advanced scholars.
  • Gardner, Daniel K., trans.  The Four Books:  The Basic Teachings of the Later Confucian Tradition.  Indianapolis:  Hackett Publishing, 2007.
  • Graham, Angus C. Two Chinese Philosophers. 1958.  Reprint. La Salle, IL:  Open Cout Press, 1992. Insightful introduction to the philosophies of two thinkers who developed the metaphysical and ethical concepts that formed the basis for mature Neo-Confucianism. Suitable for both undergraduates and advanced scholars.
  • Kim, Yung Sik. The Natural Philosophy of Chu Hsi, 1130-1200.  Philadelphia: Memoirs of the American Philosophic Society, 2000.
  • Li Zhi.  A Book to Burn and A Book to Keep (Hidden):  Selected Writings.  Translated by Rivi Handler-Spitz, Pauline C. Lee, and Haun Saussy.  New York:  Columbia University Press, 2016.  Selected writings by an iconoclastic Neo-Confucian who, among other things, argued for the moral equality of women.
  • Makeham, John, ed.  Dao Companion to Neo-Confucian Philosophy.  Springer, 2010.
  • Tiwald, Justin and Bryan W. Van Norden, eds. Readings in Later Chinese Philosophy:  Han Dynasty to the 20th Century.  Indianapolis:  Hackett Publishing, 2014.  Selection of readings from a variety of figures and texts, along with introductions to each period.  Suitable for both undergraduates and advanced scholars.
  • Wang Yangming and Lu Xiangshan.  Readings from the Lu-Wang School of Neo-Confucianism.  Translated by Philip J. Ivanhoe.  Indianapolis:  Hackett Publishing, 2009.
  • Zhu Xi.  Chu Hsi: Learning to Be a Sage.  Translated by Daniel K. Gardner. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.  Translations from an anthology of the writings of Zhu Xi (1130-1200), one of the most important Neo-Confucian thinkers, along with extensive and insightful explanatory comments by Gardner.  Suitable for both undergraduates and advanced scholars.

Chinese Marxism

  • Chai, Winberg.  Essential Works of Chinese Communism.  New York:  Bantam Books, 1969.
  • Liu Shao-ch’i. How to Be a Good Communist.  Reprint.  Paladin Press, 2006.  Despite the silly English title (the original Chinese is “On the Ethical Cultivation of Communist Party Members”) this is actually a serious work of philosophy, which attempts to synthesize Marxism and Confucianism.
  • Mao Zedong. Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung.  Vol. 1.  Peking:  Foreign Languages Press, 1965.  See especially “On Contradiction” and “On Practice.”
  • Nivison, David S.  “Communist Ethics and Chinese Tradition.”  Journal of Asian Studies 16:1 (November 1956):  51-74. Excellent introductory overview.  Most appropriate for advanced scholars.

New Confucianism

  •  Clower, Jason T.  The Unlikely Buddhologist:  Tiantai Buddhism in Mou Zongsan’s New Confucianism.  Brill, 2010.
  • Makeham, John, ed.  New Confucianism:  A Critical Examination.  New York:  Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
  • Mou Zongsan.  Nineteen Lectures on Chinese Philosophy:  A Brief Outline of Chinese Philosophy and the Issues It Entails.  Translated by Esther C. Su. Foundation for the Study of Chinese Philosophy and Culture, 2015.
  • Mou Zongsan, Xu Fugan, Zhang Junmai, Tang Junyi, and Xie Youwei.  “A Manifesto on behalf of Chinese Culture Respectfully Presented to the People of the World.”  1958.  Translated by Eirik L. Harris.  URL= http://www.hackettpublishing.com/mou_zongsan_manifesto, accessed 27 July 2016.  This is a readable new translation of what is typically called the “New Confucian Manifesto.” 
  • Xiong Shili.  New Treatise on the Uniqueness of Consciousness.  Translated by John Makeham.  New Haven:  Yale University Press, 2015.

Thematic Studies of Chinese Philosophy

  • Angle, Steve.  Sagehood:  The Contemporary Significance of Neo-Confucian Philosophy.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 2012.  Suitable for both undergraduates and advanced scholars.
  • Cline, Erin.  Confucius, Rawls, and the Sense of Justice.  New York:  Fordham University Press, 2012.
  • Cline, Erin.  Families of Virtue:  Confucian and Western Views on Childhood Development . New York: Columbia University Press, 2015.
  • Ivanhoe, Philip J. Confucian Moral Self Cultivation. Reprint.  Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2000.  Clear overview of the variety of views on this topic held by some seminal philosophers in Chinese history.  
  • Johnston, Ian and Wang Ping, trans. Daxue and Zhongyong.  Hong Kong:  Chinese University Press, 2012. 
  • Li, Chenyang, ed. The Sage and the Second Sex: Confucianism, Ethics, and Gender.  Open Court Press, 2000.
  • Nivison, David S. The Ways of Confucianism: Investigations in Chinese Philosophy.  Edited by Bryan W. Van Norden.  La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1996. Nivison was one of the seminal figures in the development of analytic approaches to Chinese philosophy.  See especially “Philosophical Voluntarism in Fourth-Century China,” “Motivation and Moral Action in Mengzi,” “The Philosophy of Wang Yangming.” Most suitable for advanced scholars.
  • Perkins, Franklin.  Heaven and Earth are Not Humane:  The Problem of Evil in Classical Chinese Philosophy.  Indianapolis:  Indiana University Press, 2014.
  • Priest, Graham.  One: Being an Investigation into the Unity of Reality and Its Parts, including the Singular Object which Is Nothingness. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.  Sophisticated discussion of the problem of individuation, using resources from formal logic, F.H. Bradley, Huayan Buddhism, and Daoism. Most suitable for advanced scholars.
  • Shun, Kwong-loi.  Mencius and Early Chinese Thought.  Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997. An insightful and carefully argued work. Most suitable for advanced scholars.
  • Sim, May. Remastering Morals with Confucius and Aristotle.  Cambridge University Press, 2007. 
  • Stalnaker, Aaron.  Overcoming Our Evil: Human Nature and Spiritual Exercises in Xunzi and Augustine.  Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2006.
  • Tiwald, Justin, ed. Oxford Handbook on Chinese Philosophy.  New York: Oxford University Press, forthcoming.
  • Van Norden, Bryan W. Virtue Ethics and Consequentialism in Early Chinese Philosophy.  New York:  Cambridge University Press, 2007. Treats Confucius and his early follower Mengzi as virtue ethicists, and their critic Mozi as a consequentialist. Includes discussions of comparative methodology. 
  • Wang, Robin, ed. Images of Women in Chinese Thought and Culture.  Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2003. Selections by and about women over millennia.
  • Wang, Robin.  Yinyang:  The Way of Heaven and Earth in Ancient Chinese Thought and Culture.  New York:  Cambridge University Press, 2012.
  • Yearley, Lee H. Mencius and Aquinas: Theories of Virtue and Conceptions of Courage.  Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990.  This is the book that started the revolution of interpreting Confucianism in the vocabulary of virtue ethics.
  • Yu, Jiyuan.  The Ethics of Confucius and Aristotle: Mirrors of Virtue.  New York:  Routledge, 2007).

Christian Philosophy and Theology

Pre-twentieth Century

  • Athanasius
  • Jerome
  • John Chrysostom
  • Basil the Great
  • Gregory of Nazianzus
  • Gregory of Nyssa
  • Augustine
  • Boethius
  • Anselm
  • Hildegard of Bingen
  • Thomas Aquinas
  • Bonaventure
  • Duns Scotus
  • William Ockham
  • Catherine of Siena
  • Desiderius Erasmus
  • Martin Luther
  • John Calvin
  • Thomas More
  • Teresa of Avila
  • John of the Cross
  • Ignatius of Loyola
  • John Bunyan
  • Blaise Pascal
  • Jonathan Edwards
  • Joseph Butler
  • Therese of Lisieux 
  • Soren Kierkegaard
  • John Henry Newman

Twentieth Century to Present

  • Dietrich Bonhoeffer
  • Edith Stein
  • Dorothy Day
  • Simone Weil
  • C.S.Lewis
  • Elizabeth Anscombe
  • Jacques Maritain
  • William Alston
  • Alvin Plantinga
  • Nicholas Wolterstorff
  • Robert Audi
  • William Lane Craig
  • Alasdair MacIntyre
  • Marilyn McCord Adams
  • Robert Adams
  • C. Stephen Evans
  • Eleonore Stump
  • Richard Swinburne
  • Peter van Inwagen
  • Jon Kvanvig
  • Charles Taylor
  • Linda Zagzebski
     

Suggested Readings

  • Anselm.  Basic Writings.  Trans. Thomas Williams.  Indianapolis:  Hackett Publishing, 1997.
  • Aquinas, Thomas.  Treatise on Happiness. Translated by John A. Oesterle.  Notre Dame:  University of Notre Dame Press, 1984.
  • Aquinas, Thomas.  The Treatise on the Divine Nature.  Translated by Brian J. Shanley.  Indianapolis:  Hackett Publishing, 2006.
  • Athanasius. Selected Treatises of Athanasius. Trans. John Henry Newman. 1877. URL=http://www.newmanreader.org/works/athanasius/original/index.html
  • Augustine, Confessions. Translated by F.J. Sheed. 2nd ed.  Indianapolis:  Hackett Publishing, 2007.
  • Boethius. Consolation of Philosophy. Trans. Joel Relihan. Indianapolis:  Hackett Publishing, 2001.
  • Duns Scotus. Philosophical Writings: A Selection. Trans. Alan B. Wolter. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1987.
  • Hildegard of Bingen. Selected Writings. Trans. Mark Atherton. New York: Penguin Books, 2001
  • James, William.  “The Will to Believe,” in Pragmatism:  The Classic Writings.  Edited by H.S. Thayer. Indianapolis:  Hackett Publishing, 1982.
  • Jerome. The Letters of Saint Jerome.  Trans. H. W. Fremantle. Aeterna Press, 2016.  
  • Kant, Immanuel.  Religion within the Bounds of Reason Alone.  Translated by Werner S. Pluhar.  Indianapolis:  Hackett Publishing, 2009.
  • Ockham. Philosophical Writings: A Selection.  Trans. Philotheus Boehner. Rev. ed. Indianapolis:  Hackett Publishing, 1990.
  • Pascal, Blaise.  Pensées.  Translated by Roger Ariew.  Indianapolis:  Hackett Publishing, 2005.
  • Peterson, Michael, William Hasker, Bruce Reichenbach, and David Basinger.  Reason and Religious Belief:  An Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion.  5th edition.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 2012.
  • Plantinga, Alvin.  God, Freedom, and Evil.  New York:  Harper and Row, 1974.
  • Plantinga, Alvin.  Knowledge and Christian Belief.  Grand Rapids, MI:  Eerdmans, 2015.
  • Rowe, William L. and William J. Wainwright.  Philosophy of Religion:  Selected Readings. 3rd ed. New York:  Oxford University Press, 1998.
  • Stump, Eleonore.  The God of the Bible and the God of the Philosophers.  Marquette University Press, 2016.
  • Swinburne, Richard.  The Existence of God. 2nd ed. New York:  Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • Swinburne, Richard.  The Resurrection of God Incarnate.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 2003.
  • Taliaferro, Charles and Chad Meister.  The Cambridge Companion to Christian Philosophical Theology.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
  • Weil, Simone.  Simone Weil: An Anthology. Edited by Sian Miles.  Grove Press, 2000.
  • Zagzebski, Linda and Timothy D. Miller, eds. Readings in Philosophy of Religion:  Ancient to Contemporary.  New York:  Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.

Continental Philosophy   

It is common to divide contemporary Anglo-European philosophy into Analytic philosophy (which is dominant in the English-speaking world) and Continental philosophy. Broadly speaking, I would suggest that Analytic philosophers take as their philosophical model the universalistic aspirations of natural science, while Continental philosophers tend to see philosophy as historically, culturally, and even subjectively conditioned. This distinction is not sharp and is not always helpful. (A quip attributed to philosopher Bernard Williams is that dividing philosophy into "Analytic" and "Continental" is as useless as dividing cars into "those made in Japan" and "blue ones.") Nonetheless, there is clearly a sociological divide in contemporary philosophy in terms of which authors a given philosopher cites, engages with, and takes seriously. Consequently, with apologies for the inadequacy of the category, here is a list of Anglo-European thinkers who tend to get (unfairly) ignored or even mocked by "mainstream" English-language philosophers. 

  • Agamben, Giorgio.  Homo Sacer.  1995.  Translated by Daniel Heller-Roazen.  Stanford University Press, 1998.
  •  Althusser, Louis.  For Marx.  1965.  Translated by Ben Brewster.  Verso, 20067.
  • Arendt, Hannah. The Human Condition.  1958.  2nd ed.  Chicago:  University of Chicago Press, 1998.
  • Bachelard, Gaston.  The New Scientific Spirit.  1933.  Translated by Arthur Goldhammer.  Beacon Press, 1986.
  • Bachelard, Gaston.  The Poetics of Space.  1957.  Translated by Maria Jolas.  Reprint, Beacon Press, 1994.
  • Barthes, Roland.  Mythologies. 1957.  Translated by Richard Howard and Annette Lavers. 2nd ed.  Hill and Wang, 2013.
  • Beauvoir, Simone de.  The Ethics of Ambiguity.  1948.  Reprint, Citadel Press, 2015. 
  • Beauvoir, Simone de.  The Second Sex.  1949. Translated by Constance Borde and Sheila Malovany-Chevalier.  New York:  Vintage Books, 2011.  One of the classics of modern feminism.
  • Benjamin, Walter.  “The Work of Art in Its Age of Technological Reproducibility.”  1936.  In Michael W. Jennings, Brigid Doherty, and Thomas Y. Levin, eds., The Work of Art in Its Age of Technological Reproducibility and Other Writings on Media.  Cambridge:  Belknap Press, 2008. 
  • Baudrillard, Jean.  For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign.  1972.  Telos Press, 1981.
  • Butler, Judith.  Gender Trouble:  Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. 1990.  Reprint, New York:  Routledge, 2006.
  • Cixous, Hélène.  “The Laugh of the Medusa.”  Pp. 245-64 in Isabelle de Courtivron and Elaine Marks, eds. New French Feminisms: An Anthology.  New York:  Schocken Books, 1981.
  • Cixous, Hélène. Newly Born Woman.  1975.  Translated by Betsy Wing.  University of Minnesota Press, 1986.
  • Critchley, Simon.  Ethics-Politics-Subjectivity:  Essays on Derrida, Levinas, and Contemporary French Thought.  Reprint.  New York:  Verso, 2009.
  • Deleuze, Gilles.  Difference and Repetition.   1968.  New York:  Bloomsbury, 2014.
  • Deleuze, Gilles, and Félix Guattari.  A Thousand Plateaus. 1980.  Translated by Brian Massumi.  University of Minnesota Press, 1987.
  • Derrida, Jacques.  Of Grammatology.  1967. Translated by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak.  Rev. ed. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.
  •  Foucault, Michel.  The Archaeology of Knowledge.  Translated by A.M. Sheridan Smith.  New York:  Pantheon Books, 1972. Especially important concepts from this work include “episteme.”
  • Foucault, Michel.  Discipline and Punish.  Translated by Alan Sheridan. Reprint.  New York:  Vintage Books, 1995.  Especially important concepts from this work include “surveillance,” and “biopower.”
  • Fourcault, Michel.  History of Sexuality: Volume 1: An Introduction.  1976.  Translated by Robert Hurley.  New York: Vintage Books, 1978.
  • Foucault, Michel.  Madness and Civilization.  1961.  New York:  Vintage Books, 1965.
  • Gadamer, Hans-Georg.  Truth and Method.  1960. Translated by Joel Weinsheimer and Donald G. Marshall.  Rev. ed.  New York:  Bloomsbury Academic, 2013.  This is a profound and fascinating work. More suitable for scholars to read, but I have taught it to advanced undergraduates.
  • Guignon, Charles and Derk Pereboom, eds. Existentialism:  Basic Writings.  2nd ed. Indianapolis:  Hackett Publishing, 2001.  Includes selections from Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Sartre.
  • Habermas, Jürgen.  Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action. Translated by Christian Lenhardt.  Reprint.  MIT Press, 2001.  This is a good general introduction to his thought.
  • Hegel, G.W.F.  The Phenomenology of Spirit.  Translated by A.V. Miller.  Rev. ed.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1977.  Not a book for the faint of heart, but really amazing once you wrap your head around it.
  • Heidegger, Martin.  Basic Writings:  Key Selections from “Being and Time.”  Edited by David Krell with a Foreword by Taylor Carman.  Rev. ed.  New York:  Harper Perennial, 2008.  Being and Time (1927) is perhaps the single most important work of 20th-century Continental philosophy.
  • Husserl, Edmund.  Cartesian Meditations: An Introduction to Phenomenology.  1931.  Translated by Dorion Cairns.  Martinus Nijhoff, 1977.
  • Husserl, Edmund.  The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology. 1936. Translated by David Carr.  Northwestern University Press, 1970.
  • Irigaray, Luce.  An Ethics of Sexual Difference.  1984.  Translated by Carolyn Burke and Gillian C. Gill.  Cornell University Press, 1993.
  • Irigaray, Luce.  This Sex which Is Not One.  1977.  Translated by Catherine Porter.  Ithaca, NY:  Cornell University Press, 1985. 
  • Kofman, Sarah.  The Enigma of Woman:  Woman in Freud’s Writings.  Translated by Catherine Porter.  Ithaca, NY:  Cornell University Press, 1985.  
  • Kofman, Sarah.  Nietzsche and Metaphor.  1972.  Translated by Duncan Large.  Stanford University Press, 1993. 
  • Kristeva, Julia.  Revolution in Poetic Language.  Translated by Margaret Waller.  New York:  Columbia University Press, 1984.
  • Lauretis, Teresa de.  “Queer Theory, Lesbian and Gay Studies.”  differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies. 3:2 (Summer 1991):
  • Le Doeuff, Michèle.  The Sex of Knowing.  1998.  Translated by Kathryn Hamer and Lorraine Code.  New York:  Routledge, 2003.
  • Lyotard, Jean-François.  The Postmodern Condition:  A Report on Knowledge.  Translated by Geoff Bennington and Brian Massumi.  Minneapolis:  University of Minnesota Press, 1984. In style and themes this is an excellent introduction much of contemporary Continental philosophy. This is primarily a book that will appeal to scholars, but I have taught it to undergraduates by giving them lots of assistance in understanding it.
  • MacIntyre, Alasdair.  After Virtue.  3rd ed. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2007.  This is a seminal work that launched the virtue ethics movement in philosophy. Suitable for both undergraduates (with some assistance) and scholars. Analytically trained philosophers will be able to appreciate this work.
  • Marcuse, Herbert.  Eros and Civilization.  1955. Boston, Beacon Press, 1966.
  • Merleau-Ponty, Maurice.  Phenomenology of Perception.  1945. Translated by Donald Landes.  New York:  Routledge, 2013.
  • Nancy, Jean-Luc.  The Disavowed Community.  2014.  Translated by Philip Armstrong.  Fordham University Press, 2016.
  • Nancy, Jean-Luc.  The Inoperative Community.  1986.  Translated by Peter Connor, Lisa Garbus, Michael Holland, and Simona Sawhney. University of Minnesota Press, 1991.
  • Ortega y Gasset.  The Revolt of the Masses.  New York:  W.W. Norton, 1932.
  • Rorty, Richard.  Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature.  Rev. ed.  Princeton:  Princeton University Press, 2009.  A controversial critique of the Western epistemological tradition.
  • Sartre, Jean-Paul.  Being and Nothingness.  1943. Translated by Hazel E. Barnes.  Reprint, Washington Square Press 1993.
  • Spivak, Gayatri.  A Critique of Post-Colonial Reason.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999. 
  • Spivak, Gayatri.  In Other Worlds:  Essays in Cultural Politics.  1986.  Reprint, Routlege, 2006.
  •  Taylor, Charles.  The Ethics of Authenticity.  Cambridge:  Harvard University Press, 1992.
  • West, Cornel. The American Evasion of Philosophy: A Genealogy of Pragmatism.  University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.  
 

Feminism

Jesi V. Taylor (?) and Christina Weinbaum (?)

Where do I get started?

  • To be added:  Three to ten solid readings that are good places for someone to start if she or he doesn't know anything about this topic, perhaps including the very best introductory anthologies, most accessible seminal primary texts, and secondary sources providing overviews or anthologies of essays.

To Learn More

  • No more than thirty sources, including seminal works, useful anthologies of primary texts, anthologies of secondary essays, and secondary studies.

Sampling of Noteworthy Women Philosophers from Antiquity to the Present

  • No more than thirty sources.
  • Anscombe, G. E. M.
  • Atherton, Margaret.  Women Philosophers of the Early Modern Period. Hackett Publishing, 1994.
  • Christine de Pisan. 
  • Foot, Philippa.
  • Gines, Kathryn T. "Anna Julia Cooper." In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2015 Edition), Edward N. Zalta, ed. URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2015/entries/anna-julia-cooper/.
  • Janiak, Andrew, Cheryl Thomas, Liz Milewicz, and Will Shaw, eds., Project Vox.  URL=http://projectvox.org/. 
  • Murdoch, Iris.
  • Nussbaum, Martha C. 
  • O'Neill, Eileen.  "Disappearing Ink:  Early Modern Women Philosophers and Their Fate in History."  Pp. 17-62 in Janet A. Kourany, ed., Philosophy in a Feminist Voice. Princeton University Press, 1997. 
  • Pomeroy, Sarah B. Pythagorean Women: Their History and Writings. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013.
  • Shapiro, Lisa, trans.  The Correspondence between Princess Elisabeth of Bohemia and René Descartes.  University of Chicago Press, 2007.
  • Waithe, M. E. A History of Women Philosophers: Ancient Women Philosophers 600 B.C. ― 500 A.D. Springer, 1987.

 

Indian Philosophy

Indian philosophy is concerned with epistemology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, the philosophy of language, personal identity--in short, everything that Anglo-European philosophy discusses. Traditionally, Indian philosophy is divided into Buddhist and "Orthodox" philosophies. Orthodox philosophy is then divided into six "views," but these eventually coalesce into three complementary pairs: Nyāya-Vaishesika, Sāmkhya-Yoga, and Mimamsa-Vedanta. A bibliography with more references than you could read in a lifetime is maintained by Professor Karl Potter:  “Bibliography of Indian Philosophies,” http://faculty.washington.edu/kpotter (last modified 8 July 2017).  There is also a list of PhD programs in Indian philosophy in North America at "The Philosophical Rasika Report" http://indianphilosophyblog.org/2017/10/29/the-philosophical-rasika-report-listings-of-ph-d-programs-in-indian-philosophy-2017-edition-part-i-north-america/ (last modified 29 October 2017).

Where Should I Start?

Indian and Tibetan Buddhist Philosophy

  • Anacker, Stefan. Seven Works of Vasubandhu: The Buddhist Psychological Doctor. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1984.
  • Blumenthal, James.  The Ornament of the Middle Way:  A Study of the Madhyamaka Thought of Santaraksita.  Boston:  Snow Lion, 2004.
  • Candrakīrti. Introduction to the Middle Way (Boston:  Shambhala, 2005).
  • Carpenter, A. Indian Buddhist Philosophy.  Durham: 2014.
  • Collins, Steven.  Selfless Persons:  Imagery and Thought in Theravada Buddhism.  New York:  Cambridge University Press, 1990.
  • D’Amato, Mario.  Maitreya's Distinguishing the Middle from the Extremes.  American Institute of Buddhist Studies, 2012.
  • Edelglass, William, and Jay Garfield, eds. Buddhist Philosophy:  Essential Readings.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 2009.  Excellent anthology of primary texts with helpful introductions.
  • Frauwallner, Erich.  The Philosophy of Buddhism.  Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2007.
  • Garfield, Jay L. Engaging Buddhism:  Why It Matters to Philosophy.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 2015.
  • Garfield, Jay L. Empty Words:  Buddhist Philosophy and Cross-Cultural Interpretation.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
  • Garfield, Jay L. and Jan Westerhoff, eds.  Madhyamaka and Yogacara:  Allies or Rivals?  New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.
  • Gethin, Rupert.  The Foundations of Buddhism.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 1998.
  • Gold, Jonathan C.  Paving the Great Way:  Vasubandhu’s Unifying Buddhist Philosophy.  New York:  Columbia University Press, 2015.
  • Goodman, Charles.  Consequences of Compassion: An Interpretation and Defense of Buddhist Ethics.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.  An interpretation of Buddhist ethics as a form of consequentialism.
  • Gowans, Chrisopher W.  Philosophy of the Buddha: An Introduction. New York: Routledge, 2003.
  • Hamilton, Sue. Early Buddhism--A New Approach: The I of the Beholder.  Richmond: Curzon Press, 2000.
  • Harris, Ian. The Continuity of Madhyamaka and Yogacara in Indian Mahayana Buddhism. eiden: E. J. Brill, 1991.
  • Harvey, Peter.  An Introduction to Buddhist Ethics.  New York:  Cambridge University Press, 2000.
  • Holder, John J., trans.  Early Buddhist Discourses.  Indianapolis:  Hackett Publishing, 2006.
  • Huntington, C. W. The Emptiness of Emptiness:  An Introduction to Early Indian Madhyamika.  Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999.
  • Jiang, Tao. Contexts and Dialogue: Yogacara Buddhism and Modern Psychology on the Subliminal Mind. University of Hawaii Press, 2006.
  • Kapstein, Matthew T. Reason's Traces: Identity and Interpretation in Indian and Tibetan Buddhist Thought.  Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2001.
  • Keown, Damien. Buddhist Ethics:  A Very Short Introduction.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • Keown, Damien.  The Nature of Buddhist Ethics.  New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001.
  • Kochumuttom, Thomas A. A Buddhist Doctrine of Experience. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1982.
  • Nāgārjuna. The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way. Translated with commentary by Jay L. Garfield.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 
  • Paul, Diana Y. Women in Buddhism: Images of the Feminine in the Mahayana Tradition.  University of California Press, 1985.
  • The Questions of King Milinda:  An Abridgement of the Milindpañha.  Translated by N.K.G. Mendis. Buddhist Publication Society, 1993.
  • Rahula, Walpola. What the Buddha Taught.  New York: Grove Press, 1979. Very clear introduction by a Theravada Buddhist monk.
  • Siderits, Mark.  Buddhism as Philosophy:  An Introduction.  Indianapolis:  Hackett Publishing, 2007. This is the best brief philosophical introduction to Indian Buddhism.
  • Siderits, Mark, Evan Thompson, and Dan Zahavi, eds. Self, No Self? Perspectives from Analytic, Phenomenological, and Indian Traditions.  Reprint, New York:  Oxford University Press, 2013.
  • Stcherbatsky, F. Th. Buddhist Logic. New York: Dover Publications, 1962.
  • Streng, Frederick. Emptiness: A Study in Religious Meaning. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1967.
  • Williams, Paul. Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations. New York: Routledge, 1989.

Buddhism and Feminism/Gender

  • Cabezon, Jose, ed., Buddhism, Sexuality, and Gender. Albany, NY:  State University of New York Press, 1991.
  • Caplow, Zenshin Florence and Reigetsu Susan Moon, The Hidden Lamp:  Stories from Twenty-Five Centuries of Awakened Women (Wisdom Publications, 2013).
  • Carney, Eido Frances, Receiving the Marrow: Teachings on Dogen by Soto Zen Women Priests (Temple Ground Press, 2012).
  • Gross, Rita, Buddhism after Patriarchy: A Feminist History, Analysis, and Reconstruction of Buddhism (Albany:  State University of New York Press, 1992).
  • Klein, Ann, Meeting the Great Bliss Queen: Buddhists, Feminists, and the Art of the Self (Snow Lion, 2008).
  • McCarthy, Erin, Ethics Embodied:  Rethinking Selfhood through Continental, Japanese, and Feminist Philosophies, reprint (Lexington Books, 2011).
  • McWeeny, Jennifer and Ashby Butnor, eds., Asian and Feminist Philosophies in Dialogue: Liberating Traditions (New York: Columbia University Press, 2014).
  • Miller, Andrea, Buddha’s Daughters: Teachings from Women Who Are Shaping Buddhism in the West (Shambhala Press, 2014).
  • Paul, Diana Y., Women in Buddhism: Images of the Feminine in the Mahayana Tradition (University of California Press, 1985).
  • Shaw, Miranda, Passionate Enlightenment: Women in Tantric Buddhism (Princeton University Press, 1995).

"Orthodox" (Non-Buddhist) Indian Philosophy

Bhagavad Gita

  • Bhaghavad-Gita:  Krishna’s Counsel in Time of War. Translated by Barbara Stoler Miller.  New York:  Bantam Classic, 1986. A very readable translation.
  • Bhagavad Gita: A New Translation.  Translated by Gavin Flood and Charles Martin.  New York:  W. W. Norton and Company, 2012.
  • The Bhagavad-Gita: With a Commentary Based upon the Original Sources. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973.
  • The Bhagavadgita with an Introductory Essay, Sanskrit Text, English Translation and Notes. Translated with commentary by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. London: Allen and Unwin, 1948.
  • Davis, Richard H. The Bhagavad Gita: A Biography.  Princeton University Press, 2014. A brief overview of the history of interpretations of the Gita.
  • Sreekumar, S. “An Analysis of Consequentialism and Deontology in the Normative Ethics of the Bhagavadgītā.” Journal of Indian Philosophy (2012) vol. 40, no. 3: 277-315.

Vedanta

  • Adluri, Vishwa. "Vedānta." Oxford Bibliographies Online.  URL=http://www.oxfordbibliographiesonline.com/view/document/obo-9780195399318/obo-9780195399318-0061.xml.  Last modified 27 January 2011.
  • Buitenen, J. A. B. van. Rāmānuja on the Bhagavadgītā. Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass, 1968.
  • Chari, Srinivasa S. M. The Philosophy of the Bhagavadgītā: A Study Based on the Evaluation of the Commentaries of Śaṁkara, Rāmānuja and Madhva. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 2005.
  • Chari, Srinivasa S. M. The Philosophy of the Upaniṣads: A Study Based on the Evaluation of the Comments of Śaṁkara, Rāmānuja, and Madhva. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 2002.
  • Chari, Srinivasa S. M. The Philosophy of the Vedāntasūtra: A Study Based on the Evaluation of the Commentaries of Śaṁkara, Rāmānuja and Madhva. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1998.
  • Deutsch, Eliot.  Advaita Vedanta: A Philosophical Reconstruction. Honolulu: East-West Center Press, 1969. The classic philosophical introduction.
  • Deutsch, Eliot, and Rohit Dalvi, eds. The Essential Vedanta: A New Source Book of Advaita Vedanta. Bloomington, IN: World Wisdom, 2004.
  • Chari, Srinivasa S. M. Vaisnavism: Its Philosophy, Theology and Religious Discipline. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1994.
  • Dasgupta, Surendranath N.  A History of Indian Philosophy.  5 vols. 1922-1955.  Reprinted by various publishers.
  • Datta, Dhirendra Mohan.  The Six Ways of Knowing: A Critical Study of the Vedanta Theory of Knowledge.  Calcutta: University of Calcutta, 1960.
  • King, Richard. Early Advaita Vedānta: The Māhayāna Context of the Gauḍapādīya Kārikā. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1995.
  • Lipner, Julius J. The Face of Truth: A Study of Meaning and Metaphysics in the Vedāntic Theology of Rāmānuja. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1986.
  • Mahadevan, T. M. P. Superimposition in Advaita Vedānta. New Delhi: Sterling, 1985.
  • Nakamura, Hajime. A History of Early Vedānta Philosophy. 2 vols. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1989–2004.
  • Rāmānuja. Vedārthasaṃgraha. Edited and translated by S. S. Ragavachar. Mysore, India: Shri Ramakrishna Ashrama, 1968.
  • Ramanuja, Sri. Gita Bhasya.  Translated by Svami Adidevananda. Mylapore, India: Sri Ramakrishna Math, n.d. A Vedanta commentary on the Bhagavad Gita.  
  • Ram ­Prasad, Chakravarthi. Advaita Epistemology and Metaphysics: An Outline of Indian Non­Realism. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002.
  • Śaṅkara. A Thousand Teachings: The Upadeśasāhasrī of Śaṅkara. Translated and edited by Sengaku Mayeda. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2006.
  • Samkarācārya, Sri. Srīmad Bhagavad Gītā Bhāsya. Translated by A.G. Krishna Warrier.  Mylapore: Sri Ramakrishna Math, 1983.
  • Sarma, Deepak. An Introduction to Mādhva Vedānta. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2003.
  • Staal, J. F. Advaita and Neoplatonism. Madras: University of Madras, 1961.
  • Taber, John. Transformative Philosophy: A Study of Śaṅkara, Fichte, and Heidegger. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1983.

Other

  • Bhushan, Nalini and Jay Garfield. Indian Philosophy in English: From Renaissance to Independence.  Oxford University Press, 2011.
  • Chadha, Monima. "The Self in Early Nyāya: A Minimal Conclusion." Asian Philosophy 23:1 (2013): 24-42.
  • Chakrabarti, Arindam. "The Nyāya Proofs for the Existence of the Soul." Journal of Indian Philosophy 10 (1982): 211-238.
  • Chakrabarti, Arindam. "I Touch What I Saw." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 52 (1992): 103-117.
  • Dasti, Matthew R.. "Nyāya." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. URL=http://www.iep.utm.edu/nyaya
  • Dasti, Matthew R. "Nyāya's Self as Agent and Knower." In Matthew R. Dasti and Edwin F. Bryant, eds. Free Will, Agency, and Selfhood in Indian Philosophy.  New York: oxford University Press, 2014.
  • Framarin, Christopher G.. Desire and Motivation in Indian Philosophy. New York: Routledge, 2009.
  • Frauwallner, Eric. History of Indian Philosophy.  Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1993. 
  • Gandhi, Mahatma.  Gandhi:  Selected Political Writings.  Edited by Dennis Dalton.  Indianapolis:  Hackett Publishing, 1996.  
  • Ganeri, Jonardon.  "Cross-modality and the Self."  Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 52 (1992):  103-117.
  • Ganeri, Jonardon.  Philosophy in Classical India. London: 2001.
  • Ganeri, Jonardon, ed. Indian Logic: a Reader. Richmond, Curzon Press: 2000.
  • Ganeri, Jonardon. The Lost Age of Reason: Philosophy in Early Modern India 1450-1700. Reprint.  Oxford University Press, 2014.
  • Gupta, Bina. Cit: Consciousness. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
  • Gupta, Bina. An Introduction to Indian Philosophy: Perspectives on Reality, Knowledge, and Freedom.  New York:  Routledge, 2011.
  • Halbfass, Wilhelm. India and Europe:  An Essay in Understanding.  Albany, NY:  State University of New York Press, 1988.
  • Halbfass, Wilhelm.  On Being and What There Is: Classical Vaisesika and the History of Indian Ontology.  Albany, NY:  State University of New York Press, 1992.
  • Halbfass, Wilhelm.  Tradition and Reflection: Explorations in Indian Thought.  Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991.
  • Hamilton, Sue. Indian Philosophy: a Very Short Introduction (Oxford: 2001). This is remarkably good, especially given how brief it is.
  • Hiriyanna, Mysore. The Essentials of Indian Philosophy.  London:  George Allen & Unwin, 1932.
  • King, Richard.  Indian Philosophy: An Introduction to Hindu and Buddhist Thought.  Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 1999.
  • Koller, John M., and Patricia Koller, eds. A Sourcebook in Asian Philosophy. New York:  Prentice-Hall, 1991.
  • Krishna, Daya.  Indian Philosophy: A Counter-Perspective.  Oxford, 1992.
  • Matilal, Bimal Krishna. Ethics and Epics.  Delhi: 2002; reprinted 2015.
  • Matilal, Bimal Krishna. Logic, Language, and Reality. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1985.
  • Matilal, Bimal Krishna. Logical and Ethical Issues.  New Delhi: 2004.
  • Matilal, Bimal Krishna. Mind, Language, and World.  Delhi: 2002; reprinted 2015.
  • Matilal, Bimal Krishna. Perception: An Essay on Classical Indian Theories of Knowledge. Oxford: 1986.
  • Mohanty, Jitendranath N. Classical Indian Philosophy: An Introductory Text.  Lanham, MA:  Rowman and Littlefield, 2000.
  • Mohanty, Jintendranath N. Reason and Tradition in Indian Thought.  New York: Oxford, 1992.
  • Phillips, Stephen H. Classical Indian Metaphysics. La Salle, IL:  Open Court Press, 1995.
  • Potter, Karl H. Presuppositions of India’s Philosophies.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice-Hall, 1963.
  • Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli. The Ethics of the Vedanta and Its Metaphysical Presuppositions. Madras: Guardian, 1908
  • Raju, Poolla T. Stuctural Depths in Indian Thought.  Albany, NY:  State University of New York Press, 1985.
  • Rarhakrishnan, Sarvepalli, and Charles A. Moore, eds.  A Source Book in Indian Philosophy. Princeton:  Princeton University Press, 1957. This is still the best general anthology available.
  • Sarma, Deepak. Classical Indian Philosophy:  A Reader.  New York:  Columbia University Press, 2011.
  • Sen, Amartya.  “Indian Traditions and the Western Imagination.”  Daedulus 129: 1-26.
  • Smart, Ninian. Doctrine and Argument in Indian Philosophy.  London:  George Allen & Unwin, 1964.
  • Sharma, B. N. K. Philosophy of Śri Madhvācārya. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1986.
  • Shaw, Jaysnakar Lal, The Collected Writings of Jaysankar Lal Shaw: Indian Analytic and Anglophone Philosophy.  Bloomsbury, 2016.  
  • Tagore, Rabindranath.  Nationalism.  1917.  Reprint.  A Word to the Wise, 2013.
  • Tagore, Rabindranath.  The Religion of Man.  1931.  Reprint.  Martino Fine Books, 2013.
  • Timalsina, Sthaneshwar. Consciousness in Indian Philosophy: The Advaita Doctrine of Awareness Only. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2008.
  • Zimmer, Heinrich.  Philosophies of India.  Edited by Joseph Campbell.  Princeton:  Princeton University Press, 1969. 

 


Indigenous Philosophies

"Indigenous Philosophy" is a sometimes useful label for the wide variety of philosophical views held by people whose cultures originally developed independently of the Indo-European and East Asian traditions. It includes both their native philosophies as well as philosophical discussions surrounding he current situation of Indigenous peoples. This is one of the most under-studied areas in all of philosophy. (The cultures of Africa are also "indigenous" in the sense defined above, but it is conventional to include their philosophies under the heading "Africana philosophy.")

What to Read First

  • Deloria, Jr., Vine. Spirit and Essence:  The Vine Deloria, Jr. Reader.  Edited by Barbara Deloria, Kristen Foehner, and Sam Scinta.  Golden, CO:  Fulcrum, 1999.
  • Maffie, James. Aztec Philosophy:  Understanding a World in Motion.  Boulder:  University Press of Colorado, 2014. Seminal work on this fascinating tradition.
  • Waters, Anne, ed.  American Indian Thought:  Philosophical Essays. Wiley-Blackwell. 2003.  Excellent collection of essays by a variety of authors, grouped under the headings "American Indians and Philosophy," "Epistemology and Knowing," "Science, Math, Logic," "Metaphysics and Being," "Phenomenology and Ontology," "Ethics and Respect," "Social and Political Philosophy," "Esthetics." Also includes an extensive bibliography and list of web resources. Suitable for both undergraduates and scholars. (The editor is one of the first two Native Americans to be granted a PhD in philosophy in the US.)

Indigenous Peoples North of the Rio Grande

  • Alfred, Taiaiake. Wasáse:  Indigenous Pathways of Action and Freedom. Reprint.  Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2015.
  • Brandt, Richard P.  Hopi Ethics.  Chicago:  University of Chicago Press, 1954.
  • Burkhart, Brian Yazzie. “Red Wisdom, Highlighting Recent Writing in Native American Philosophy.” Confluence 1 (2014): 227-239. 
  • Cajete, Gregory.  Native Science: Natural Laws of Interdependence.  Santa Fe, NM: Clear Light Books, 1999.
  • Churchill, Ward.  From a Native Son:  Selected Essays on Indigenism.  South End Press, 1999.  Powerful set of essays on a variety of topics. See especially "In the Matter of Julius Streicher: Applying the Nuremberg Precedents in the United States," and "False Promises: An Indigenist Perspective on Marxist Theory and Practice."
  • Coulthard, G. S. Red Skin, White Masks: Rejecting the Colonial Politics of Recognition. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2014.
  • Deloria, Jr., Vine. Spirit and Essence:  The Vine Deloria, Jr. Reader.  Edited by Barbara Deloria, Kristen Foehner, and Sam Scinta.  Golden, CO:  Fulcrum, 1999.
  • Fixico, Donald.  The American Indian Mind in a Linear World.  New York:  Routledge, 2003.
  • Hanke, Lewis. Aristotle and the American Indians. Bloomington: IndianaUniv. Press, 1959.
  • Hester, Lee and Jim Cheney. "Truth and Native American Epistemology."  Social Epistemology, 15:4 (2001): 319-334.
  • Hester, Jr., Thurman Lee and Dennis McPherson, “The Euro-American Philosophical Tradition and Its Ability to Examine Indigenous Philosophy,” Ayaangwaamizim: The International Journal of Indigenous Philosophy, 1:1 (1997): 3-9.
  • Moore, Kathleen Dean, Kurt Peters, Ted Jojola, and Amber Lacy, eds. How It Is: The Native American Philosophy of V.F. Cordova.  University of Arizona Press, 2007.
  • Niehardt, John G. Black Elk Speaks: Being the Life Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux. Reprint.  Lincoln:  University of Nebraska Press, 2000.
  • Norton-Smith, Thomas M.  The Dance of Person and Place:  One Interpretation of American Indian Philosophy.  Albany:  State University of New York Press, 2010.  Norton-Smith applies the philosophy of Nelson Goodman to Native American thought.  Excellent resource for analytic philosophers seeking to bring the two traditions into dialogue.
  • Pratt, Scott L.  Native Pragmatism:  Rethinking the Roots of American Philosophy.  Bloomington:  Indiana University Press, 2002.
  • Tomsons, Sandra and Lorraine Mayer, eds.  Philosophy and Aboriginal Rights: Critical Dialogues.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 2012.
  • Turner, Dale.  This Is Not a Peace Pipe:  Toward a Critical Indigenous Philosophy.  Toronto:  University of Toronto Press, 2006.
  • Umeek (E. Richard Atleo). The Principles of Tsawalk: An Indigenous Approach to Global Crisis, 2011.
  • Warrior, Robert Allen.  Tribal Secrets:  Recovering American Indian Intellectual Traditions.  Minneapolis:  University of Minnesota press, 1995.
  • Waters, Anne, ed.  American Indian Thought:  Philosophical Essays. Wiley-Blackwell. 2003.  Excellent collection of essays by a variety of authors, grouped under the headings "American Indians and Philosophy," "Epistemology and Knowing," "Science, Math, Logic," "Metaphysics and Being," "Phenomenology and Ontology," "Ethics and Respect," "Social and Political Philosophy," "Esthetics." Also includes an extensive bibliography and list of web resources. (The editor is one of the first two Native Americans to be granted a PhD in philosophy in the US.)
  • Weaver, Jace, ed. Defending Mother Earth: Native American Perspectives on Environmental Justice.  Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1996.
  • Whyte, Kyle P. “Is it Colonial Déjà Vu? Indigenous Peoples and Climate Injustice.” Humanities for the Environment: Integrating Knowledges, Forging New Constellations of Practice. Edited by J. Adamson, M. Davisand, and H. Huang. Earthscan Publications, 2016.
  • Whyte, Kyle P. “Our Ancestor’s Dystopia Now: Indigenous Conservation and the Anthropocene.” Routledge Companion to the Environmental Humanities. Edited by U. Heise, J. Christensen, and M. Niemann. Routledge, 2016.
  • Whyte, Kyle P. “What Do Indigenous Knowledges Do for Indigenous Peoples?” Keepers of the Green World: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Sustainability.  Edited by M.K. Nelson and D. Shilling. Cambridge University Press, 2016.
  • Wildcat, Daniel R. Red Alert! Saving the Planet with Indigenous Knowledge, 2009.
  • Wilshire, Bruce.  The Primal Roots of American Philosophy:  Pragmatism, Phenomenology, and Native American Thought.  University Park, PA:  Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000.
  • Witherspoon, Gary. Language and Art in the Navajo Universe.  Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1977.

Indigenous People South of the Rio Grande

  • Gingerich, Willard.  “Heidegger and the Aztecs: The Poetics of Knowing in Pre-Hispanic Nahuatl Poetry.” Pp. 85-112 in Recovering the Word: Essays on Native American Literature. Edited by B. Swann and A. Krupat.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
  • León-Portilla, Miguel. Aztec Thought and Culture: A Study of the Ancient Nahuatl Mind.  Translated by Jack Emory Davis. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963.
  • León-Portilla, Miguel. Time and Reality in the Thought of the Maya, 2nd ed. Translated by Charles Boiles, Fernanado Horcasitas, and Miguel León-Portilla. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988.
  • Maffie, James. Aztec Philosophy:  Understanding a World in Motion.  Boulder:  University Press of Colorado, 2014. Seminal work on this fascinating tradition.
  • McLeod, Alexus. Philosophy of the Ancient Maya: Lords of Time. Lexington Books; Rowman & Littlefield, 2017.
  • Popol Vuh: The Definitive Edition of the Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life and the Glories of Gods and Kings.  Introduction, translation and commentary by Dennis Tedlock. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985.
  • Santana, Alejandro. “Did the Aztecs Do Philosophy?” American Philosophical Association Newsletter on Hispanic/Latino Issues in Philosophy 8:1 (2008): 2-9.

Australian Aboriginal Philosophy

  • Arden, Harvey.  Dreamkeepers: A Spirit-Journey into Aboriginal Australia. Harpercollins, 1994.
  • Berndt, Robert and Catherine Berndt.  The World of the First Australians.  University of Chicago Press, 1964.
  • Charlesworth, Max, Howard Morphy, Diane Bell, & Kenneth Maddock, eds. Religion in Aboriginal Australia: An Anthology.  University of Queensland Press, 1984.
  • Elkin, A.P.  Aboriginal Men of High Degree: Initiation and Sorcery in the World's Oldest Tradition. 1993.
  • Jennifer, Isaacs.  Australian Dreaming: 40,000 years of Aboriginal History. New Holland Publishing, 2006.
  • Lawlor, Robert.  Voices of the First Day:  Awakening in the Aboriginal Dreamtime.  Inner Traditions, 1991.  On Australian aboriginal thought.
  • Parker, K. Langloh. Wise Women of the Dreamtime: Aboriginal Tales of the Ancestral Powers.  Inner Traditions International, 1993.

Islamic Philosophy

  • Adamson, Peter.  A History of Philosophy without Any Gaps:  Philosophy in the Islamic World.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 2016.
  • Adamson, Peter.  Philosophy in the Islamic World: A Very Short Introduction. New York:  Oxford University Press, 2015.  Includes an extensive list of suggestions for further reading, which I have relied on heavily in constructing this section.
  • Adamson, Peter, ed.  Interpreting Avicenna.  New York:  Cambridge University press, 2013.
  • Adamson, Peter and P E. Portmann, trans.  The Philosophical Works of al-Kīndī.  Karachi, 2012.
  • Adamson, Peter and Richard Taylor, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
  • Butterworth, Charles E., trans.  Alfarabi:  The Political Writings.  Ithaca, 2001.
  • Daiber, Hans.  Bibliography of Islamic Philosophy.  2 vols. Leiden:  Brill, 1999, 2006.
  • Duderija, Adis. The Imperatives of Progressive Islam. New York: Routledge, 2017.
  • Griffel, Frank.  Al-Ghazālī’s Philosophical Theology.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 2009.
  • Kaukua, Jari.  Self-Awareness in Islamic Philosophy:  Avicenna and Beyond.  New York:  Cambridge University Press, 2015.
  • McGinnis, Jon.  Avicenna.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 2010.
  • Nasr, Seyyed H. and O Leaman, eds.  History of Islamic Philosophy.  2 vols.  London, 1996.
  • Khalidi, Muhammad A., ed.  Medieval Islamic Philosophical Writings.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
  • McGinnis, Jon and David Reisman, eds. Classical Arabic Philosophy: An Anthology of Sources.  Indianapolis:  Hackett Publishing, 2007.
  • Renard, John, ed. Islamic Theological Themes:  A Primary Source Reader.  Oakland, 2014.
  • Winter, Tim, ed.  The Cambridge Companion to Classical Islamic Theology.  New York:  Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Jewish Philosophy

Although typically ignored by "mainstream" philosophy, the topics and methods of Jewish philosophy are clearly identifiable as part of the broad Anglo-European tradition. Some parts of Jewish philosophy are concerned with the effort to apply that tradition to understanding the Jewish faith; other parts look to the Jewish spiritual traditions for new philosophical insights; still other parts are philosophical reflections upon the issues that face contemporary Jewish communities.

What to Start?

  • Buber, Martin. I and Thou.  Translated by Walter Kaufmann. Reprint.  New York:  Touchstone, 1996
  • Frank, Daniel H. and Oliver Leaman, eds.  History of Jewish Philosophy. New York:  Routledge, 1997. This secondary work provides a good overview.
  • Frank, Daniel H., Oliver Leaman, and Charles Manekin, eds.  The Jewish Philosophy Reader. New York:  Routledge, 2000.  This is an excellent and wide ranging anthology of essays, from classic to contemporary, under the headings "Foundations and First Principles," "Medieval and Renaissance Jewish Philosophy," "Modern Jewish Thought: Between History and Tradition," "Contemporary Jewish Philosophy." Includes suggestions for further reading after each section.
  • Levinas, Immanuel.  Immanuel Levinas:  Basic Philosophical Writings.  Edited by Adriaan T. Peperzak, Simon Critchley, and Robert Bernasconi.  Indiana University Press, 2008.
  • Maimonides. The Guide of the Perplexed.  Translated by Chaim Rabin. Indianapolis:  Hackett Publishing, 1995. Maimonides is widely recognized as the single most important Jewish philosophical thinker.

To Learn More

  • Buber, Martin. I and Thou.  Translated by Walter Kaufmann. Reprint.  New York:  Touchstone, 1996.
  • Cohen, Hermann.  Religion of Reason.  Translated by Simon Kaplan. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
  • Frank, Daniel H. and Oliver Leaman, eds.  The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Jewish Philosophy.  New York:  Cambridge University Press, 2003.
  • Frank, Daniel H. and Oliver Leaman, eds.  History of Jewish Philosophy.  New York:  Routledge, 1997. This secondary work provides a good overview.
  • Frank, Daniel H., Oliver Leaman, and Charles Manekin, eds.  The Jewish Philosophy Reader. New York:  Routledge, 2000.  This is an excellent and wide ranging anthology of essays, from classic to contemporary, under the headings "Foundations and First Principles," "Medieval and Renaissance Jewish Philosophy," "Modern Jewish Thought: Between History and Tradition," "Contemporary Jewish Philosophy." Includes suggestions for further reading after each section.
  • Gaon, Saadya.  The Book of Doctrines and Beliefs. Translated by Alexander Altmann.  Indianapolis:  Hackett Publishing, 2002.
  • Heschel, Abraham Joshua.  God in Search of Man: A Philosophy of Judaism.  Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1976.
  • Hutt, Curtis, Halla Kim, and Berel Dov Lerner, eds. Jewish Religious and Philosophical Ethics. New York: Routledge, 2017.
  • Lessing, Gotthold.  Philosophical and Theological Writings.  Translated by H. B. Nisbet.  New York:  Cambridge University Press, 2005.
  • Levinas, Immanuel.  Immanuel Levinas:  Basic Philosophical Writings.  Edited by Adriaan T. Peperzak, Simon Critchley, and Robert Bernasconi.  Indiana University Press, 2008.
  • Maimon, Salomon. Essay on Transcendental Philosophy. Translated by Nick Midgley, Henry Somers-Hall, Alistair Welchman, and Merten Reglitz, New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2010.
  • Maimonides. The Guide of the Perplexed.  Translated by Chaim Rabin. Indianapolis:  Hackett Publishing, 1995. Maimonides is widely recognized as the single most important Jewish philosophical thinker.
  • Manekin, Charles, ed. Medieval Jewish Philosophical Writings.  Cambridge, 2007.
  • Mendelssohn, Moses.  Philosophical Writings.  Edited by Daniel O. Dahlstrom.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.  
  • Putnam, Hilary.  Jewish Philosophy as a Guide to Life:  Rosenzweig, Buber, Levinas, Wittgenstein. Indiana University Press, 2008.
  • Rosenzweig, Franz. Franz Rosenzweig:  His Life and Thought. Presented by Nahuhn Glatzer.  3rd ed. Indianapolis:  Hackett Publishing, 1998.  Part autobiography, part anthology.
  • Rosenzweig, Franz.  Philosophical and Theological Writings, trans. Paul W. Franks and Michael L. Morgan.  Indianapolis:  Hackett Publishing, 2000.
  • Spinoza, Benedict de. Theological-Politico Treatise.  Translated by Samuel Shirley. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2001.  Although he broke with conventional Jewish faith, Spinoza's philosophy was deeply influenced by his Jewish roots, and had a significant influence on later Jewish thought.

Latin American Philosophy

  • Caponigri, A. Robert, trans.  Major Trends in Mexican Philosophy.  University of Notre Dame Press, 1966.
  • Dussel, Enrique. Ethics of Liberation:  In the Age of Globalization and Exclusion.  Edited by Alejandro A. Vallega, and translated by Eduardo Mendieta, Camilo Pérez Bustillo, Yolanda Angulo, Nelson Maldonado-Torres. Duke University Press, 2013.
  • Femenías, Marías Luisa and Amy Oliver.  Feminist Philosophy in Latin America and Spain.  New York:  Continuum, 2007.
  • Gracia, Jorge J. E.  Hispanic/Latino Identity: A Philosophical Perspective Malden: Blackwell, 2000.
  • Gracia, Jorge J. E.  Latinos in America: Philosophy and Social Identity. Malden: Blackwell, 2008.
  • Gracia, Jorge J.E. and Manuel Vargas, “Latin American Philosophy,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2013/entries/latin-american-philosophy/>.  Includes an extensive bibliography, which I have relied upon heavily in constructing this list of readings.
  • Gracia, Jorge J.E. and Elizabeth Millán-Zaibert, eds.  Latin American Philosophy for the 21st Century:  A Critical Assessment of the Current Situation. Albany:  State University of New York Press, 2004.
  • Lugones, Maria.  Pilgrimages/Peregrinajes:  Theorizing Coalition against Multiple Oppressors (Rowan & Littlefield, 2003).
  • Mariátegui, José Carlos.  Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality. Reprint.  Austin:  University of Texas press, 1971.
  • Márquez, Ivan, ed.  Contemporary Latin American Social and Political Thought:  An AnthologyLanham, MD:  Rowman & Littlefield, 2008.
  • Mendieta, Eduardo. Globalizations, Latinamericanisms, and Critical Theory.  Albany: State University of New York Press, 2007.
  • Mendieta, Eduardo, ed.  Latin American Philosophy:  Currents, Issues, and Debates.  Bloomington:  Indiana University Press, 2003.
  • Nuccetelli, Susana.  Latin American Thought:  Philosophical Problems and Arguments.  Boulder, CO:  Westview Press, 2001.
  • Nuccetelli, Susana, Ofelia Schutte, and Otávio Bueno, eds. A Companion to Latin American Philosophy. Malden, MA:  Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
  • Nuccetelli, Susana and Gary Seay, eds.  Latin American Philosophy:  An Introduction with Readings.  Upper Saddle River, NJ:  Prentice Hall, 2003.
  • Silverblatt, I. Modern Inquisitions: Peru and the Colonial Origins of the Civilized World. Durham: Duke University Press, 2004.
  • Zea, Leopoldo. The Latin American Mind.  Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963.